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Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type. Showing results for. Search instead for. Did you mean:. All forum topics Previous Topic Next Topic. DianaSAllen New Member. Show Count of zero for missing user list. What is the best way to go about this?
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Now, moving on to In languages such as C, the first item in an array has an offset of zero from the pointer. If the size of your objects are 4 bytes, the next item has an offset of 1 x 4 bytes. If the items were indexed on natural counting, there would have to be an adjustment made by both the computer and the programmer to find the location of the item in memory.
Mistakes would be made by having this additional step, particularly on the human side of the process. It's easier, although slightly unintuitive, to use zero-based indexing. In C programming language you count from 0 to N In many most? As already said in the other answers there often is the possibility to define the index of the first element of an array freely e. However I think that the programming languages which are used most influence the way of thinking in theoretical computer science, too.
Instead, take a simple and short macro-like language for a abstracted machine, compile that, and brk your way on abstracted memory. But abstracted memory is only a sequence of bytes, you need a way to refer to specific segments. Enter pointers. But to not make every item a allocation think of a string where every char is separately allocated the next step is "lists".
The most compact list 1 is a pointer to the first element, and then put every other element in adjacent slots. Every element is, then, indexed as shift from first. And because that, the shift index starts from zero.
From time to time I have had to do numerical work in MATLAB and the 1-based indexing always stuck out like a sore thumb, so I have a few examples I can provide where 0-based indexing is advantageous. This is the simplest example. If you want to "wrap around" an array, the modulus operator works like a charm. And don't say "what if the modulus operator were defined from 1 to n instead"—that would be mathematically ludicrous. Real world examples of this might include working with days of the week, generating repeating gradients, creating hash tables, or coming up with a predicable item from a small list given a large ID number.
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In a lot of algorithms and applications, we need to work with distances. Distances can't be negative—but they can be zero. For example, one might want to count how many occurrences there are of each distance in a data set. Indexing from 0 allows this to be handled more naturally. Even if distances aren't integers—see below. Let's say you want to generate a histogram of heights.
The first "bucket" is 50cmcm. The next is cm. And so on up to cm.
Honeybees can count to zero
Also, if you wanted the buckets in reverse order, this is 0-based indexing:. This is related to the above "direction flip". Although I will use a 1 dimensional example, this also applies to 2D and higher dimensional translations, rotations, and scaling. Let's suppose, for each slot in the top row you want to find find the best fitting slot in the bottom row.
This often occurs when you want to efficiently reduce the quality of some data; image resizing is a 2D version of this. In order to prove that programs work correctly, computer scientists use the concept of an "invariant"—a property that is guaranteed to be true at a certain place in the code, no matter the program flow up to that point.
This is not just a theoretical concept. Even if invariants are not explicitly provided, code that has nice invariants tends to be easier to think about and explain to others. Now, when writing 0-based loops, they often have an invariant that relates a variable to how many items have been processed. In this case i does not represent the number of characters collected, so the invariant is a bit messier. You would have to remember to subtract one later on if you wanted the count.
Here is the other way:. Now the invariant holds again so this approach seems preferable, but it seems odd that the initial value of i can't be used as an array index—that we are not "ready to go" straight away and have to fix up i first. I suppose it's initially odd for learners of zero-based languages that, after the loop terminates, the variable is one more than the highest index used, but it all follows from the basic rule of "a list of size i can be indexed from 0 to i-1".
I admit that these arguments may not be very strong. That said, off-by-1 errors are one of the most common types of bug and at least in my experience, starting arrays from 1 needs a whole lot more adding and subtracting 1 than 0-based arrays. I will try to answer, without reference to low-level programming or any programming language , without mention of history, or much maths. As already stated in some answers, we do not count from zero using the value 0 to represent 1, and 1 to represent 2 Usually. So what do we do?
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We measure from zero. If I give you a ruler, and ask you to measure something, you measure from zero. If I ask you to tell me how far a cell in an array is from the start, then you measure from zero the first cell is zero from the start: it is at the start , the 2nd cell is 1 from the start. Rather than answer myself based off my personal preference, as all other posters have done, I would instead like to link the following very in-depth analysis instead:.
In conclusion, I set out to prove by usage cases which scheme was better: indexing arrays from zero, or indexing arrays from one. I think the discussion has shown that there is no mathematically strong argument that favours one or the other. Every usage case which asserts one scheme is better than another because that other scheme is more awkward can be countered either by a language syntax which ameliorates the problem, or else can be balanced against some other usage cases in which the first scheme is more awkward than the other it is being compared against.
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There are many data points, and the analysis is complex, yielding no clear winner. However, the thing which tips the balance in my mind is historical convention and interoperability issues. There are so many existing applications for zero-based indexing , and many existing languages which use it, that interoperability and learnability are biased in favour of that camp in my opinion.
It is disheartening that the result of an intellectual discussion should be settled with "that's the way we've always done things" but in this case it seems a justified conclusion. That being said, I think for certain specialised or high-level languages, I hope there is a place for one-based indexing, because I feel it has been an inadequately explored solution to the job of addressing elements of an array.
I hope this essay has shown that there are some inherently good things about these schemes, and I also hope that future discussions of the issue won't unnecessarily conflate indexing from one with including end-points in loops or slices; although related, the two are not the same issue. I think it's best to view addresses and indices not as identifying objects or elements, but rather the spaces between or on either side of them.
Thus, an array with four elements would have the following indices:. Each element is associated with two addresses--the one immediately preceding it and the one immediately following it. The address immediately following any element other than the last will immediately precede another element, and likewise the address immediately preceding any element other than the first will follow another element. Note that unlike the "half-open interval" view, this approach does not require any special handling for pointers that go one beyond the last element.
I think that one of the first programming languages to use zero-based indexing was BCPL. In BCPL, pointers and integers are interchangable, and arrays are represented by pointers. Subscripting uses the operator! These are defined to be equivalent to! It's neat, simple, and consistent, and it wouldn't work with 1-based addressing.
objectifcoaching.com/components/choctaw/quel-sont-les-site.php But although zero-based indexing seems to work best for system programming languages, there are many modern languages that chose to start at 1. XPath is an obvious example.