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Food preparation vocational training preferred Ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers. Communication and other skills: Ability to read and write simple sentences and be able to carry out verbal instructions. Requires full range of body motion; requires prolong standing; frequent bending, stooping, stretching and manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, pushing carts on carpeting, and riding on elevators.
May require lifting up to 50 pounds. Ability to work with others in a stressful work environment Working Conditions: Work is performed in a kitchen with food preparation, serving and storage equipment. Possible hazards include cuts from utensils, burns from hot equipment, sudden change in temperature when entering refrigerated rooms or working around cooking equipment, slips, or falls. Some contact with staff. May be subjected to hazardous materials and infectious diseases.
Requires full range of body motion, manual and finger dexterity, and eye-hand coordination. Requires standing and walking for extensive periods of time. May require lifting up to 50 pounds or pushing carts. The above list of duties is intended to describe the general nature and level of work performed by people assigned to this classification.
The University of Toledo is an equal opportunity, affirmative action employer. Countryman wants to see limitations placed on the number of hypersonic missiles that a country can build or on the type of warheads that they can carry.
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He and others worry that failing to regulate these weapons at the international level could have irreversible consequences. For Now. One reason is that for years the big powers have cared mostly about numerical measures of power — who has more warheads, bombers and missiles — and negotiations have focused heavily on those metrics. Only occasionally has their conversation widened to include the issue of strategic stability, a topic that encompasses whether specific weaponry poses risks of inadvertent war.
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The tunnel itself, some 40 feet in length and five feet in diameter, looks like a water main; it narrows at one end before emptying into the silver sphere. A column of costly high-tech sensors is grafted onto the piping where a thick window has been cut into its midsection. Marren seemed both thrilled and harried by the rising tempo at his laboratory in recent months.
A jovial year-old who speaks carefully but excitedly about his work, he showed me a red brick structure on the property with some broken windows. American military researchers had a hard time figuring out how to reassemble and operate it, so they recruited some German scientists stateside. As we entered the control room of the building that houses the active tunnel, Marren mentioned casually that the roof was specially designed to blow off easily if anything goes explosively awry.
Then an enormous electric burner is ignited beneath it, heating the air inside to more than 3, degrees, hot enough to melt steel. The air is then punched by pressures 1, times greater than normal at one end of the tunnel and sucked at the other end by a vacuum deliberately created in the enormous sphere. That sends the air roaring down the tunnel at up to 18 times the speed of sound — fast enough to traverse more than 30 football fields in the time it takes to blink. Smack in the middle of the tunnel during a test, attached to a pole capable of changing its angle in fractions of a second, is a scale model of the hypersonics prototype.
That is, instead of testing the missiles by flying them through the air outdoors, the tunnel effectively makes the air fly past them at the same incredible pace.
For the tests, the models are coated with a paint that absorbs ultraviolet laser light as it warms, marking the spots on their ceramic skin where frictional heat may threaten the structure of the missile; engineers will then need to tweak the designs either to resist that heat or shunt it elsewhere. Their sleek, synthetic skin expands and deforms and kicks off a plasma like the ionized gas formed by superheated stars, as they smash the air and try to shed all that intense heat. The tests are fleeting, lasting 15 seconds at most, which require the sensors to record their data in thousandths of a nanosecond.
Nonetheless, Marren, who has worked at the tunnel since , is optimistic that researchers will be able to deliver a working missile soon. He and his team are operating at full capacity, with hundreds of test runs scheduled this year to measure the ability of various prototype missiles to withstand the punishing friction and heat of such rapid flight.
The faster that weapons systems can operate, he adds, the better. They reacted by careening cars into one another on highways, pushing their children into storm drains for protection and phoning their loved ones to say goodbye — until a second message, 38 minutes later, acknowledged it was an error. Hypersonics pose a different threat from ballistic missiles, according to those who have studied and worked on them, because they could be maneuvered in ways that confound existing methods of defense and detection.
Not to mention, unlike most ballistic missiles, they would arrive in under 15 minutes — less time than anyone in Hawaii or elsewhere would need to meaningfully react. How fast is that, really? An object moving through the air produces an audible shock wave — a sonic boom — when it reaches about miles per hour. This speed of sound is also called Mach 1, after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach.
Mach 2 is twice the speed of sound; Mach 3 is three times the speed of sound, and so on. One of the two main hypersonic prototypes now under development in the United States is meant to fly at speeds between Mach 15 and Mach 20, or more than 11, miles per hour. This means that when fired by the U. If true, that would mean a Russian aircraft or ship firing one of them near Bermuda could strike the Pentagon, some miles away, in five minutes.
China, meanwhile, has flight-tested its own hypersonic missiles at speeds fast enough to reach Guam from the Chinese coastline within minutes. One concept now being pursued by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency uses a conventional missile launched from air platforms to loft a smaller, hypersonic glider on its journey, even before the missile reaches its apex.
The glider then flies unpowered toward its target.
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The deadly projectile might ricochet downward, nose tilted up, on layers of atmosphere — the mesosphere, then the stratosphere and troposphere — like an oblate stone on water, in smaller and shallower skips, or it might be directed to pass smoothly through these layers. In either instance, the friction of the lower atmosphere would finally slow it enough to allow a steering system to maneuver it precisely toward its target.
The weapon, known as Tactical Boost Glide, is scheduled to be dropped from military planes during testing next year. With its skin heated by friction to as much as 5, degrees, its engine walls would be protected from burning up by routing the fuel through them, an idea pioneered by the German designers of the V-2 rocket.
Officials will have trouble even knowing where a strike would land. They would zoom along in the defensive void, maneuvering unpredictably, and then, in just a few final seconds of blindingly fast, mile-per-second flight, dive and strike a target such as an aircraft carrier from an altitude of , feet.
During their flight, the perimeter of their potential landing zone could be about as big as Rhode Island. John E.
The Pentagon is just now studying what a hypersonic attack might look like and imagining how a defensive system might be created; it has no architecture for it, and no firm sense of the costs. A test was terminated when the skin peeled off a hypersonic prototype, and another self-destructed when it lost control. A third hypersonic test vehicle was deliberately destroyed when its boosting missile failed in The task of conducting realistic flight tests also poses a challenge. So fresh testing corridors are being negotiated in Utah that will require a new regional political agreement about the noise of trailing sonic booms.
The most recent open-air hypersonic-weapon test was completed by the Army and the Navy in October , using a 36,pound missile to launch a glider from a rocky beach on the western shores of Kauai, Hawaii, toward Kwajalein Atoll, 2, miles to the southwest. The 9 p.
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In March , Vladimir Putin, in the first of several speeches designed to rekindle American anxieties about a foreign missile threat, boasted that Russia had two operational hypersonic weapons: the Kinzhal, a fast, air-launched missile capable of striking targets up to 1, miles away; and the Avangard, designed to be attached to a new Sarmat intercontinental ballistic missile before maneuvering toward its targets. Russian media have claimed that nuclear warheads for the weapons are already being produced and that the Sarmat missile itself has been flight-tested roughly 3, miles across Siberia.
Russia has also said it is working on a third hypersonic missile system, designed to be launched from submarines. Many of their tests have involved a glide vehicle. Last August, a contractor for the Chinese space program claimed that it successfully flight-tested a gliding hypersonic missile for slightly more than six minutes. It supposedly reached a speed exceeding Mach 5 before landing in its target zone. Other Chinese hypersonic missile tests have reached speeds almost twice as fast.